Research & References


Research Paper

Measures of Remoteness: Land Isolation Distance and Population Isolation Distance.  Updated: 7 July 2017.


On-going Research

Master file of all lands and populations researched so far.  Updated: 29 Jul 2017.

Contact with corrections or additions.


General References for the Effects of Isolation

1. National Geographic Society. (n.d.). Speciation. Retrieved July 17, 2017, from

2. Khan Academy. (n.d.). Species & Speciation. Retrieved July 17, 2017, from

3. Reproductive Isolation. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved July 17, 2017, from


References for Measuring Isolation